Monday, May 25, 2020

My Thoughts On My Brain - 984 Words

Before this psychology class I never really thought about how our brain works and the different components that it controlled. I just kind of figured it was there and it did things automatically beyond my control. I knew that your brain in the key component of your body that made everything function and controlled every little detail of our bodies. The brain is something that’s always been just the brain to me, there was no real detail beyond that. I never really gone in depth with the different things that it controls and how it works. Memory, sleep, learning, emotions, etc. has always been just words that I knew the basics of. The way our memory works has always been something that I never thought about in great detail. I always just thought it was something that our brain did automatically. I just knew that I had moments in my life that always pops up or I could think about in my head. There would be small flashbacks from when I was younger that to this day I still remember . I remember waking up on Christmas morning when I was three and running down the stairs. I remember falling off my bike when I was five because I was too scared to ride down a hill. I remember all these things and never really knew why I remember so many random portions of time while everything else was just kind of jumbled up into this ball of stuff I don’t remember. There would be these memories that are so vivid and clear while others would be kind of fuzzy. It is also a way to recall informationShow MoreRelatedMy Thoughts About My Brain1172 Words   |  5 Pagescrazy! I know my colors, I aced those in kindergarten. Well I hate to be the one to break it to you, but you’ve been wrong your whole life. You have been tricked by your own brain. So now, I’m sure you’re wondering well if a banana is not yellow†¦what the heck color is it then? And how can I be tricked by my own brain†¦after all it is MY brain. Believe me if you are confused, you have a lot of company with you. Myself included. I’ve always been curious about the world around me. My mind stays filledRead MoreAn Extremely Interesting Thought Experiment1677 Words   |  7 Pagesextremely interesting thought experiment conducted by philosopher Daniel Dennett is used to stimulate philosophical possibilities about personal identity. Dennett is to retrieve a radioactive warhead, and must have his brain taken out for the period of the excursion due to the possibility of damaging his brain tissues. Upon wakening from the surgery, the underlying question appears for the first time: â€Å"Where am I?† – In the brain, or out here in my body, looking at my brain? Throughout the experimentRead MoreThe Brain Is A Remarkable Muscle Essay1213 Words   |  5 PagesThe brain is a remarkable muscle. It is the control center of the human body; the hub of all thoughts and thinking. In fact, experts estimate that the human mind thinks between 60,000 – 80,000 thoughts a day. That’s an aver age of 2500 – 3,300 thoughts per hour (Sasson). That means that the average person has approximately 275 thoughts in 5 minutes’ time. Even when at rest the human brain is working. When we’re sleeping, the brain is anything but inactive. In fact, during sleep, neurons in theRead MoreNature of Thought859 Words   |  4 PagesThe Nature of Thought Philosophy 215 November 10, 2010 The Nature of Thought The nature of thought is a process to interpret information gathered by the brain using senses, memories, and language. The process of thinking is influenced by perceptional blocks and personal barriers. Internal and external events in cultural differences along with an individual’s economic status ultimately encourage thoughts whether negative or positive. Irrational and rational thoughts influence decisionsRead MoreMy Best Friends Invited Me With Pizza And A Friendly Game Of Cards And The Broca s Area878 Words   |  4 Pages My best friends invited me over for pizza and a friendly game of cards and the Broca’s area, which deals with language and speech; the hippocampus, that plays a crucial part in memory; the hypothalamus, partly controlling my body’s endocrine and hormone- producing system and the occipital lobe allowing me to see all that goes on around me, all are parts of my brain which was involved during the evening of eating pizza, socializing, and playing cards with my friends. First, the part of the brainRead MoreMy Experience With Consciousness Or Cognition1215 Words   |  5 PagesWhen I first started this course I thought I knew a good amount about consciousness or cognition. As the semester went on I realized I did not know as much as I thought, but I ended up learning more than I ever thought possible. Every week I felt as if my knowledge was increasing day by day. Before this class most of my knowledge came through personal experience or doing some research for my own curiosity. This semester brought more insight into many different topics, but the ones I feel that IRead MoreIn Response to Daniel Dennetts Where Am I? Essay1119 Words   |  5 Pages is about the complications that might arise from Dennett categorizing his brain, who he calls Yorick, and his body, who he calls Hamlet, as two distinct entities. One may contend that the brain and the body are in fact only one entity, connected much in the same way that other peoples brains and bodies seem to be connectedÂâ€"however that may beÂâ€"with the exception of an unusually large temporal gap between Dennetts brain and Dennetts body in this case. Unfortunately, however, this worry is ultimatelyRead MoreMiddle School Reflection Paper767 Words   |  4 Pagesbeginning of my introduction to the contact of new experiences and changes begins, when I was in elementary things were way easier. you didn’t have to worry about tomorrow you just enjoyed the day as it casually went by. Everyone was so kind, sweet, and innocent I was one of those particular children who had no worries about the conflicts of middle school. Until I actually opened a part of my brain that I have never experienced before. That part of my brain made me wonder, it made my confidence slowlyRead MoreThe Nature of Thought843 Words   |  4 PagesThe nature of thought is a fascinating topic for conversation; however, in order to understand it one must also know the different facets of thinking. The t hree major aspects to explore when discussing thinking are the sensing process, memory, and medium. There are also certain perceptual blocks, thoughts, and personal barriers that may hinder a person’s thought process. The first part of thinking to explore is the sensing process, this is very important to the process of thinking. WithoutRead MoreI Am My Eyes For Granted1085 Words   |  5 Pages I definitely think I take my eyes for granted. These organs let me see the world, learn about my surroundings, and see my family and friends. I have never previously thought about how I have the ability to see and what process my eyes and brain go through in order for me to be able to see. I knew absolutely nothing about how they work. Learning about it was very interesting, and I now know it is a very complicated process. It is amazing that so many things happen in order for me to have sight,

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Financial Growth Of Sainsburys Tesco And Morrisons Example For Free - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 10 Words: 2960 Downloads: 3 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Finance Essay Type Argumentative essay Did you like this example? Sainsburys Supermarkets is the UKs longest standing major food retailing chain. The company has its headquarter in Holborn Circus London, England. The values of Sainsbury brand is made upon serving of customers with healthy, safe, fresh and tasty food. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Financial Growth Of Sainsburys Tesco And Morrisons Example For Free" essay for you Create order Sainsbury believes on providing quality and fair prices for their customers. The company is providing services to over 18.5 million customers per week. The company have a market share of around 16 per cent. Sainsburys stores have about 30,000 products and complementary non-food products and services. Sainsburys also serving in clothing with name of TU clothing. With a range of clothes, having five years in cloths market it is getting popularity day by day. The company is also providing an internet-based home delivery shopping service which is available to almost 90 per cent of UK households. J Sainsbury plc comprises of Sainsburys a chain of 525 supermarkets and 303 convenience stores and Sainsburys Bank. Sainsbury have two competitors, Morrison and Tesco which are compared in this report. Morrison is the UKs fourth largest food retailer with  403 stores. Their business is mainly food and grocery. It has 11.8%, market shares in grocery market. Tesco plc is a Brit ish international grocery and general merchandising retail chain. It is the largest British retailer by both global sales and domestic market share, and the third largest global retailer based on revenue. 1.1 HISTORY OF THE COMPANY Sainsburys was founded in 1869 by John James and Mary Ann Sainsbury. In 1882 company started own label products, with first product bacon. In 1916 Sainsburys set up a training school. In 1950s first self service store was started. 1961 it became the first food retailer to computerise the distribution of goods to its stores. In 2004 company launched TU fashion range, which included menswear, womenswear, kidswear and etc. Sainsburys were the first to launch own brand 1% fate milk in 2008. In 2009 Sainsburys was the largest retailer to completely remove battery farmed eggs from its shelves. In the same year Sainsburys awarded the compassion in world farming Good egg award. 1.2 GOAL AND VALUES Sainsburys delivers an ever-improving quality shopping experience for their customers with great products at fair prices. The company aims to exceed customer expectations for healthy, safe, fresh and tasty food, making their lives easier everyday. The values of the Sainsburys brand passion for healthy, safe, fresh and tasty food, focus is on delivering great products at fair prices. 1.3 MARKET SHARE According to the kantarworldpanel, Sainsburys have a market share of 16.3% which makes it fourth largest grocery company of UK. Tesco is leading with 30.4%, and ASDA is at 2nd number with 17%. Morrisons have 12.3% market share. (Figures of March 2010) (For market share of last five years of Tesco, ASDA, Sainsbury and Morrison, see Appendix 1) 2.0 FINANCIAL RATIO ANALYSIS Financial ratio analysis is the calculation and comparison of ratios which are derived from the information in a companys financial statements. The level and historical trends of these ratios can be used to make inferences about a companys financial condition, its operations and attractiveness as an investment. To know the financial position of Sainsburys plc, the ratios of most recent year 2009 and the previous years (2005, 2006, 2007, and 2008) have been calculated and weighed against each other. These ratios are also compared with other two companies Tesco and Morrison to understand the financial analysis of the Sainsburys. 2.1. PROFITABILITY 2.1.1 RETURN ON ORDINARY SHAREHOLDERS FUND (IN PERCENTAGE) Company Year 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Sainsburys -1.15 1.14 7.86 7.08 6.21 Tesco 16.19 17.46 19.03 19.03 17.46 Morrisons 2.58 -6.54 6.55 13.34 10.34 Figure 2.1.1 shows the ROSF ratio trends ANALYSIS This ratio measures the rate of return on the ownership interest (shareholder equity) of the common stock owners. ROSF shows how well a company uses investment funds to generate earnings growth. When this ratio is increasing, it shows a positive sign for company. According to this ratio Sainsbury position is improving from 2006 to 2007 but going down up to 2009. Tesco and Morrison ratios are also in decline after 2008. In 2009 Tesco and Morrison are in a better position. The net profit of Sainsbury is also decreased in 2009 as compared to 2008. The Sainsbury could not control its direct cost which resulted to reduce its profitability. 2.1.2 RETURN ON CAPITAL EMPLOYED (IN PERCENTAGE) Company Year 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Sainsburys 2.25 4.36 9.04 8.53 8.42 Tesco 16.65 18.84 20.66 18.82 15.92 Morrisons 5.03 -4.12 8.09 11.89 11.93 Figure 2.1.2 shows the ROCE ratio ANALYSIS ROCE ratio is an indicator of how well a company is utilizing capital to generate revenue. When this ratio is increasing, it indicates a positive sign for company.According to this ratio Sainsburys position is not so good at end of 2009 as compared to other two companies. The net profit is decreased and long term liabilities increased in 2009. Tesco trend is decreasing from last three years but Morrison is slightly better than last year. 2.1.3 NET PROFIT MARGIN (IN PERCENTAGE) Company Year 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Sainsburys 0.93 1.61 3.41 3.43 3.25 Tesco 6.29 6.28 6.73 6.45 6.32 Morrisons 2.31 -1.98 3.62 5.18 4.92 Figure 2.1.3 shows the NPM ratio ANALYSIS This ratio shows what percentage of sales become net income. Tesco and Morrison trends are going down in last years, Sainsbury position is also going down in 2009. Overall Tesco and Morrison are at good position in 2009. This ratio shows that Sainsbury makes 3.25 pence on every  £1.00 of sales in 2009 2.1.4 GROSS PROFIT MARGIN (IN PERCENTAGE) Company Year 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Sainsburys 4.33 6.64 6.83 5.62 5.48 Tesco 7.78 7.67 8.12 7.67 7.76 Morrisons 24.88 24.58 5.1 6.31 6.28 Figure 2.1.4 shows the GPM ratio ANALYSIS This ratio shows what percentage of sales become gross income. According to this ratio Sainsbury position is not so good as compared to last years and other companies are in better position as compared to Sainsbury. The performance of the company is decreased in last two years. Tesco`s performance is also decreased in 2008 but slightly improved in 2009. Morrison`s performance is almost unchanged from 2008 to 2009. The sales trend of Sainsbury is increasing in last five years, so the management of the Sainsbury have to control their cost. It is not a good sign ( decline in GPM) according to shareholders and managers point of view. 2.2. EFFICIENCY 2.2.1 AVERAGE INVENTORIES TURNOVER PERIOD Company Year 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Sainsburys 14.03 14.04 13.48 14.76 14.07 Tesco 15.3 14.67 17.89 20.34 19.44 Morrisons 17.03 12.17 11.36 13.28 13.24 Figure 2.2.1 shows the ITP ratio trends ANALYSIS This ratio shows how many times companys  inventory is sold and replaced over a period. As the ratio is low simultaneously the company is performing well. According to graph of last five years Sainsbury inventory turnover is good but Morrison position is better than Sainsbury. Sainsbury have almost a static trend in inventory days during last five years. There is a small increase in 2008 and then slightly decreased in 2009. Tesco and Morrison have same trends as Sainsbury from 2007 to 2009. Inventory days increased for these two companies in 2008 and then in 2009 there is a small decrease in the ratio. In overall Morrison has low inventory days as compare to Tesco and Sainsbury. 2.2.2 AVERAGE SETTLEMENT PERIOD FOR RECEIVABLES Company Year 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Sainsburys 0.65 0.75 0.64 0.65 0.95 Tesco 8.29 8.25 9.24 10.12 12.08 Morrisons 1.13 2.51 2.28 2.59 5.56 Figure 2.2.2 shows the SPR ratio trends ANALYSIS This ratio measures the average number of days customers take to pay their bills. When this ratio is high among other competitors it means company is not performing well. According to this ratio Sainsbury position is at best , even though there is a increase in settlement time for receivables in 2009. Receivables time for Tesco is significantly high as compared to Morrison and Sainsbury. From 2008 to 2009, Tesco and Morrison ratios rose sharply. 2.2.3 SALES REVENUE TO CAPITAL EMPLOYED Company Year 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Sainsburys 2.41 2.7 2.66 2.49 2.59 Tesco 2.65 3 3.07 2.92 2.52 Morrisons 2.18 2.08 2.23 2.3 2.42 Figure 2.2.3 shows the SRCE ratio trends ANALYSIS It is the ratio of sales revenue to the capital employed which tells whether the capital is properly employed or not and how much sales generated from employed capital. According to this ratio Sainsbury position is improving in last years and its position is best as compared to other companies. Company sales trend in last five years is increasing and at higher rate than the capital employed. Tesco ratio is falling after 2007, while Morrison is continuously improving in terms of sales return on capital employed, which shows a positive trend for company. 2.2.4 SALES REVENUE PER EMPLOYEE Company Year 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Sainsburys 156078 166954 179592 184648 194358 Tesco 139378 144507 133972 136789 149244 Morrisons 126956 130211 147213 154880 161683 Figure 2.2.4 shows the SRPE ratio trends ANALYSIS The ratio indicates that the company is utilizing their employee effectively in the generation of sales. It specifies the revenue generated per employee. Sainsbury employees are generating more income as compared to other two companies. Sainsburys ratio is increasing during 2005 to 2009 smoothly and it is at best position after 2009. Whereas Tesco trend is gone down from 2006 to 2008 and slightly increased after 2008. Morrison is also performed well during last five years. 2.2.5 AVERAGE SETTLEMENT PERIOD FOR PAYABLES Company Year 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Sainsburys 34.96 34.54 38.97 36.92 35.29 Tesco 32.95 28.38 30.73 32.94 34.59 Morrisons 44.99 32.19 30.96 34.6 38.68 Figure 2.2.5 shows the SPP ratio trends ANALYSIS This ratio shows the average time taken for a business to pay its trade payables. Decreasing trend in this ratio means the company is performing well. Sainsbury has performed well from 2007 to 2009 with a flat decrease in the RPP ratio. Other two competitors Tesco and Morrison are not good in last few years as the trend of both companies is increased. 2.2.6 OPERATING CYCLE Company Year 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Sainsburys -20.28 -19.77 -24.85 -21.5 -20.27 Tesco -9.36 -5.46 -3.6 -2.49 -3.06 Morrisons -26.84 -17.51 -17.31 -18.74 -22.88 Figure 2.2.6 shows the OC ratio trends ANALYSIS This ratio gives the average time period between purchase of commodity and receiving cash after its sale. If a company has long operating cycle it means they are not performing well. Usually in grocery market, companies like Sainsbury, Tesco and Morrison has their operating cycle in negative value which indicates that company may be utilizing cash generated after sales for their business. Which does not leaves a good impact of company in the market and in stakeholders. Sainsbury and Morrison have a high operating cycle as compare to Tesco. Sainsburys operating cycle is decreased after 2007 where Morrison`s trend for OC is increase during 2008 and 2009. 2.3. LIQUIDITY 2.3.1 CURRENT RATIO Company Year 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Sainsburys 0.59 0.8 0.71 0.65 0.55 Tesco 0.57 0.52 0.56 0.61 0.78 Morrisons 0.53 0.49 0.41 0.45 0.77 Figure 2.3.1 shows the CURRENT ratio trends ANALYSIS This ratio give an idea about company`s ability to pay back its short term liabilities with its short term assets. According to this ratio Sainsbury position is declining from 2006 to 2009. It is not a good trend so managers of Sainsbury should take action to control their short term loans. Tesco Morrison trends are increasing. In overall Tescos position is best as compared to other two companies. 2.3.2 ACID TEST RATIO Company Year 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Sainsburys 0.48 0.68 0.5 0.39 0.31 Tesco 0.34 0.33 0.32 0.38 0.63 Morrisons 0.53 0.23 0.21 0.25 0.28 Figure 2.3.2 shows the ATR ratio trends ANALYSIS The acid test ratio is more narrow measure of liquidity than the current ratio. This ratio tells whether the company have enough short term assets to pay back its liabilities without selling its inventories. Sainsbury position is declining during last years but it is still better than Morrisons. however Tesco position is best. 2.4. GEARING 2.4.1 GEARING RATIO (IN PERCENTAGE) Company Year 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Sainsburys 28.45 36.65 38.8 35.43 37.54 Tesco 35.69 28.47 29.86 36.82 57.48 Morrisons 35.67 34.22 28.49 24.87 28.07 Figure 2.4.1 shows the GR ratio ANALYSIS This ratio is about the involvement of long term loaner to the total long term capital of a company This shows that a company with high gearing (high leverage) is more vulnerable to downturns in the business cycle. Sainsburys ratio is increased in 2009 but over all it is in between Tesco and Morrison. Tesco has a very high ratio in 2009. Morrison is at good position in 2009. Sainsburys ratio shows that it has more long term stability compared Tesco. 2.4.2 INTEREST COVER RATIO Company Year 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Sainsburys 1.12 1.67 5.46 4.63 4.15 Tesco 9.06 10.27 13.28 12.21 7.18 Morrisons 3.23 -3.27 6.01 11.2 11.92 Figure 2.4.2 shows the ICR ratio ANALYSIS This ratio is used to determine how easily a company can pay interest on outstanding debt. According to this ratio Sainsbury position is almost unchanged during last 3 three years. It is showing that company is able to pay back interests from its profit. Morrison has continuously increasing trend where as Tesco is going down which indicates that there interests are increasing according to their profit. 2.5. INVESTMENT 2.5.1 DIVIDEND PAYOUT RATIO Company Year 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Sainsburys 416.39 225.86 43.21 54.1 75.43 Tesco 40.33 38.79 37.32 37.29 40.86 Morrisons 196.76 -39.07 39.52 19.49 28.48 Figure 2.5.1 shows the DPR ratio trends ANALYSIS It is the ratio which gives the relationship between the dividends announced for the year to the profit after taxation. According to investor point of view this ratio should be high. Sainsbury has a decline from 2005 to 2007 but it is improving after 2007 which is a good sign for investors. Tesco has a still trend during last 5 years where Morrisons trend in last 3 years is nearly equal to Tesco. Sainsbury has a better position among these three companies. 2.5.2 DIVIDEND YIELD RATIO Company Year 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Sainsburys 4.44 2.56 2.71 3.4 4.14 Tesco 1.93 2.2 2.46 2.78 3.05 Morrisons 1.42 1.42 1.53 1.84 2.22 Figure 2.5.2 shows the DYR ratio trends ANALYSIS Dividend yield ratio is an investment ratio which shows the company`s dividend per share to existing share price. From graph it is clear that Sainsbury has a very good position as compared to Tesco and Morrison. DYR ratio is increasing from last 3 years which is a positive trend for shareholders. Sainsburys investor are getting more dividend returns. Tesco and Morrison trends are also increased in last few years. This ratio presents that all three companies are improving in terms of dividends per share. 2.5.3 EARNINGS PER SHARE Company Year 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Sainsburys 3.49 3.45 19.16 19.14 16.62 Tesco 17.44 20.07 23.84 26.95 27.5 Morrisons 4.14 -9.46 9.33 20.79 17.39 Figure 2.5.3 shows the EPS ratio trends ANALYSIS This ratio shows the earnings available to share holders to the number of ordinary shares in issue. Tesco`s trend is continuously increasing during last five years but Morrison has variations and after 2008 it has decreasing trend. Sainsburys has increased in 2006-2008 but in 2009 its trend also decreased. According to investors point of view Sainsburys managers should take immediate action to increase their earnings per share. 2.5.4 PRICE/EARNINGS RATIO (P/E) Company Year 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Sainsburys 97.05 97.93 17.66 17.67 20.35 Tesco 24.95 21.68 18.25 16.15 15.83 Morrisons 70.2 -30.71 31.12 13.97 16.7 Figure 2.5.4 shows the P/E ratio trends ANALYSIS This investment ratio shows the market value of a share to the earnings per share. To know the company position P/E ratio is compared with other companies. High ratio gives an idea that in future investors can expect higher earnings. The graph is representing that all three companies has almost same ratios after 2007. But still Sainsbury has little edge over Tesco and Morrison. LIMITATIONS Financial ratios are not true representative of the financial situation of a company. These have certain limitations which are enlisted below. Financial ratios are calculated on the basis of income statement and balance sheet, which may not represent the actual year ending figures. Financial ratios only concerned with the numeric figures, these numbers cannot give the actual factors which are behind these trends. If a calculated ratio is giving a negative trend, it does not mean that the business has problems. May be there are some managerial or business reasons which can favour the decisions of management. Every analyst has different approach for calculating financial ratios, which leads to different calculation results. Financial ratios show the historical position of the company, so the future position can not be assessed appropriately. CONCLUSION From analysis of the financial ratios it is very clear that Tesco is leading in most of the ratios, while Morrison has some positive trends in its ratios. Sainsbury is performing well as compared to Morrison. Ratio analysis also shows that Sainsburys is improving its performance after 2007. Meanwhile company have to improve some financial figures. The cost of sales of Sainsburys is increased during last years and the net profit is decreased. In fact in 2009 the net profit margin and gross profit margin of the company is decreased which is not a good sign according to stakeholders point of view. But interestingly the dividend payout ratio has an increasing trend which is a good indication for investors who already have shares or they are interested to invest in Sainsburys. Looking the operating cycle of all three companies Tesco has a better operating cycle. The Sales revenue to capital employed of Sainsburys is increased as compare to Tesco which is going down. It is observed that Sainsburys is investing in UK to have a greater share in the market. If over all performance of the company is observed, it has an improvement in last few years. Sainsburys is slightly behind ASDA and there is a possibility that in near future Sainsbury will become at the 2nd position in UK grocery market. So having future stability of the company in mind, it is suggested that the share holders and investor should take an optimistic and positive approach towards investment in the company. APPENDICES APPENDIX 1 THE MARKET SHARE OF SAINSBURYS, TESCO AND MORRISONS MARKET SHARE (in %) DATE SAINSBURYS MORRISONS TESCO Mar 10 16.30 12.30 30.40 Nov 08 15.90 11.40 30.90 July 08 15.90 11.40 31.20 Nov 07 16.0 11.20 31.30 June 07 16.22 11.22 31.55 Jun 06 16.04 11.32 31.38 (https://www.kantarworldpanel.com, accessed on 27th April 2010) APPENDIX 2 CALCULATIONS FOR SAINSBURYS RATIOS OF 2009 1. Return on Shareholders Funds = 100 *(Net Profit after Taxation Preference Dividends) / (Ordinary Share Capital + Reserves) = 100*(289-0) / [(4376+4935)/2] = 6.21 % 2. Return on Capital Employed = 100*(Profit before interest taxation) / (Share capital + Reserves +Long term Liabilities) = 100*(614) / [(4376+4935)/2 + (2738+2528)/2] =8.42% 3. Net Profit Margin = 100*(Profit before interest taxation) / (Sales revenues) = 100*(614) / (18911) = 3.25% 4. Gross Profit Margin = 100*(Gross Profit) / (Sales revenue) = 100*(1036) / (18911) = 5.48% 5. Average Inventories Turnover Period = 365 *(Inventori es held) / (cost of Sales) = 100*(689) / (17875) = 14.07 days 6. Average Settlement Period for Trade Receivables = 365*(trade receivables) / (Sales revenue) = 365*(49) / (18911) = 0.95 days 7. Sales Revenue to Capital Employed = (Sales Revenue) / (Share capital + reserves + long term liabilities) = (18911) / [(4376+4935)/2 + (2738+2528)/2] = 2.59 times 8. Sales Revenue per Employee = (Sales Revenue)/ (number of employees) = 18911/97300 =  £194358 per employee 9. Average Settlement Period for Trade Payables = 365*(trade payables)/ (cost of Sales) = 365*(1728) / (17875) =35.29 days 10. Operating Cycle = AITP + ASPR ASPP = 14.1 + 0.94 35.29 = 20.25 days 11. Current Ratio = (Current Assets) / (Current Liabilities) = (1591) / (2919) = 0.55 times 12. Acid Test Ratio = (Current Assets Inventories) / (Current Liabilities) = (1591-689) / (2919) = 0.31 times 13. Gearing Ratio = 100*(Long term Liabilities) / (Shar e capital + reserves + Long term liabilities) = 100*(2738) / [(4376+4935)/2 + (2738+2528)/2] =37.54% 14. Interest Cover Ratio = (Profit before Interest and taxation) / (Interest payable) = (614) / (148) = 4.15 times 15. Dividend Payout Ratio = 100*(Dividend for the year) / (Net profit after taxation) = 100*(218) / (289) = 75.43% 16. Dividend Yield Ratio = 100*[(Dividend per share) / (1-t)] / (Market share value) Where t = 10%, = 0.1 (dividend tax credit) = 100*(12.6 / 0.9) / (338.3) =4.14% 17. Earnings per Share = (net profit after taxation) / (Number of ordinary shares in issue) = (289) / (1738.50) = 16.62 pence 18. Price/Earnings (P/E) Ratio = (Market share value) / (Earnings per share) = (338.3) / (16.62) = 20.35 times APPENDIX 3 VALUES OF SAINSBURYS USED FOR ABOVE CALCULATIONS SAINSBURYS ( 2004 2010) VARIABLE NAME 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 Cost of Sales 17875 16835 15979 14994 14544 Current Assets 1591 1722 1940 3845 2988 Current Liabilities 2919 2652 2721 4810 5036 Dividend for the Year 218 178 140 131 254 Dividend per Share 12.6 10.35 8.25 7.8 13.51 Gross Profit 1036 1002 1172 1067 658 Interest Payable 148 132 107 155 127 Inventories 689 681 590 576 559 Long Term Liabilities 2738 2538 2506 2178 1793 1766 Market Value per Share (on 30th April 10) 338.3 338.3 338.3 338.3 338.3 Net Profit after Taxation 289 329 324 58 61 Number Of Employees 97300 96600 95500 96200 97400 Number Of Shares 1738.5 1718.7 1691.3 1679 1749.9 Preference Dividends 0 0.2 0.4 1 113 Profit Before Interest And Taxation 614 611 584 259 142 Sales Revenue 18911 17837 17151 16061 15202 Trade Payables 1728 1703 1706 1419 1393 Trade Receivables 49 32 30 33 27 Capital Employed + Reserves 4376 4935 4349 3886 4027 5018

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Importance of Advertisement in Business - 1051 Words

Importance of Advertisement in Business What is an Advertisement? â€Å"Advertising can be defined as a paid form of non – professional but encouraging, complimenting and positively favorable presentation of goods and services to a group of people by an identified sponsor. It does not include distribution of free samples or offering bonuses, these are sales promotion. In simplest words advertising is introduction, to consumers and general public, of services and goods.† * Advertising is a favorable representation of product to make consumers, customers and general public aware of the product. It lets the potential buyers, general public and end users to be aware and familiar with the brands, their goods and services.†¦show more content†¦By this means of advertising, brands can let people, who are connected directly and indirectly with non – electronic media, know about their supplies. It also includes banners and posters. Non – electronic media is in reach of every locality. Advertis ing on print media is comparatively cheaper than advertising on television. Importance of Electronic Advertising Advertising by means of electronic means of communication is most the popular way of advertising. One can cover a wide range of audiences of all ages, color and gender by using this mean. Television viewers are in every home. If one is advertising on TV the brand would be introduced in almost every house. Advertising on internet is getting more popular with time. It is the most viable platform available till date, for advertising, sharing news and creating awareness. You can get your advertising reached to every corner of the world. Importance of Advertising Agencies Many of the firms have their own department of advertising whose aim is to advertise the company’s merchandise and services to the potential buyers and make general consumers aware of different aspects of their brand. While, on the other hand, many organizations depends upon advertising agencies for promoting their brands and services which are available under their roof for the consumers’ disposal. Organizations are supposed to pay a certainShow MoreRelated Advertisements Essay889 Words   |  4 PagesAdvertisements Advertisements are everywhere. Whether it is a magazine, billboard, television or radio, ads attempt to catch people’s eyes from all over. An advertisement uses many different aspects in order to entice its possible consumers. In a commercial for Thermasilk hair products, the product craved attention; therefore the advertiser used a popular song to hook the viewers. The ad continues on with its temptations to reel in consumers by expressing a well-known desire of many women: toRead MorePromotional Activities Coordination Project : Sample Resume1143 Words   |  5 Pagesof the staff that will be involved in the project. 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Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Decision Making Processes In Organization -Myassignmenthelp.Com

Question: Discuss About The Decision Making Processes In Organization? Answer: Introduction Decision making and problem solving are very vital in all the organizations managerial activities. It is important to note that even though the two defining characteristics associated with management can be interchangeably be used, contemporary literature actually makes the two terms to become alienated. Problem solving can thus be defined as being a mental and larger process which starts with the identification of the problem then ultimately ends through the assessment of viable solutions (Aken Berends, 2017). On the other hand, decision making can be defined as being also a mental process that results in the identification of numerous alternative scenarios before ultimately arriving at the final selection. It is quite a common fact that what is done in most contemporary organizations is solving problems and making of decisions. When individuals in the organization come across any new problems in the operations or decisions which have to be made, they usually react with decisions which seemed to have resolved such problems before. It is thus quite important to ensure that organized approaches are used to resolve problems and make viable decisions for the organization. However, it is important to note that not all the problems and decisions can be resolved using rational approaches. Putting in place effective frameworks that can be used for resolving of problems is quite important because not only will it help the organization to enhance productivity but it will also help it to increase its profitability. Some of the basic guidelines below will be quite helpful in ensuring that organizational problems are resolved amicably. Definition of underlying Problems Recognition and definition of the problems facing an organization is usually the first step. This implies that organizational managers must have the ability of defining problems facing their respective organizations based on their planned objectives regarding what is wrong and what is right. It is quite important for organizational managers to ascertain the causes of the problems, ascertain where such a problem is occurring, and ascertain how such a problem occurs. Definition of the problem should be done through ensuring that it is broken down into steps. It is important for the managers to ensure that they verify problems for analysis through ensuring that they confer with the relevant stakeholders. In case the organization is faced with numerous problems, then it will be prudent to ensure that they are prioritized so as to know which ones ought to be addressed first. It is also prudent for the organization to note the differences which exist between the urgent and important problems. This is due to the fact that at most times, what most people consider to be important problems ultimately turn out to be just urgent problems (Bolman Deal, 2017). It is important for the organizational managers to ascertain or comprehend their roles in the existing organizational problems. This is attributed to the fact that understanding ones role in the organizational problem greatly influences the manner in which one perceives the roles that have been taken up by other people. Determination of the Significance of the problem Upon the definition of the problem, it is important for the organizational managers to ensure that the significance of the problem is also determined. During this period, there is need for the top management of the organization to ensure that it focuses on the manner in which such problems had developed in the organization and also assess viable resources that will be required in order to resolve the problem. After knowing the problematic information, it should be the responsibility of the organizations management to generate all the viable solutions that can be used in resolving the problem. It is thus recommended that the management of the organization should actually come up with a variety of solutions that can be used in addressing the problems that their respective companies or organizations are facing before the analysis process starts. In some of the times, solutions towards organizational problems may be quite simple and even easily overlooked as a result of heightened stress that is associated with the situation. The advantages and disadvantages of each of the solutions should be evaluated and then the management should finally select the best solution that can be used in addressing the specific problems raised. Brainstorming as a way of resolving problems and making decisions Owing to the fact that both the problem solving as well as decision making processes are usually connected closely, it is important for the organizations management to determine the type of motivation that will be used in the determination of the most useful brainstorming method that will be used. It is prudent for all and sundry to note that brainstorming is indeed a powerful and useful skill that is normally strongly used to focus on a specific topic over a period of time that is limited (Bryson, 2018). This is attributed to the fact that it presents different and even inspiring interactions for the stakeholders who are involved. Decision making is very important for the success of each and every organization across the world because it helps an organization to have smooth operations. This thus implies that tactics used in solving problems in an organization should also comprise of decision making processes which are quite strong. This implies that problem solving and decision maki ng are not only related to each other but they are require creativity and skills. Enhancing Communication It was ascertained that most of the problems in most organizations are usually caused as a result of lack of effective coordination and lack of sufficient exchange of knowledge as a result of ineffective communication between various stakeholders in the organization. It is beneficial for all the organizational stakeholders to discuss any new emerging ideas among themselves since not only does it give them an opportunity of expressing their differing points of views but it also helps them to expose the negative and positive impacts. Stakeholders can thus effectively communicate with each other on why they selected a specific solution. This is quite essential since it helps he stakeholders to enhance communication through utilization of experience and knowledge in order to get improved solutions that are capable of helping the organizations to attain its set goals and objectives. Handling of Teams Research conducted indicated that decision making processes that involved teams were actually much better as opposed to the individual decision making processes. However, it is important for the management to note that there are usually some problems that can be encountered when dealing with a team and therefore they should ensure that the team members in the organization are handled carefully so as to make it an efficient and successful team (Salas Martin, 2017). This is quite true since a team in any given organization may comprise of many individuals who not only come from different backgrounds but who also have different levels of knowledge and experiences. It thus becomes apparent that there may be higher chances of team members conflicting due to disagreements, ego, and even due to the clashing of their different thoughts and opinions. Team decision processes may also become hampered due to competition since most of the team members are keen on the building of their respective careers in a world that has become highly competitive. Responsibility of Managers in Making Decisions The decision making process is quite essential in any new management era and the manager is known to take the most responsibility in the making of best decisions for their respective organizations. It is important for all and sundry to note that effective organizational decision making processes normally comprise of numerous steps which require inputting of information during the different phases of the decision making process and even during the feedback stage. Effective decision making will thus require the recognition of the decisions requirement which can either be an opportunity or a problem (Zenger et al, 2017). While a problem is known to occur when an organizations or companys performance are unsatisfactory or below the target, an opportunity on the other hand normally happens when the organizational managers sees a good potential that will help the organization to seize chances that will help it achieve its set targets. Conclusion The management of organizations should always strive towards ensuring that creative problem solving skills are enhanced in their respective organizations. This is quite important since not only will it help in resolving conflicts but it will also help the organization to easily achieve its set goals and objectives thus increasing productivity and profitability. It is also prudent for the management of organizations to put in mind that problems are normally encountered in most of the organizations across the world and thus knowing the best way of resolving such problems is what will make them fail or succeed in their daily operations. Based on the above information, it is quite apparent that decision making and problem solving skills are indeed vital skills that can guarantee the success of most organizations across the world. People responsible for making decisions in the organizations should put more attention on ensuring that the quality of their respective decisions is enhanced. References Bolman, L. G., Deal, T. E. (2017). Reframing organizations: Artistry, choice, and leadership. John Wiley Sons. Bryson, J. M. (2018). Strategic planning for public and nonprofit organizations: A guide to strengthening and sustaining organizational achievement. John Wiley Sons. Nickerson, J. A., Wuebker, R., Zenger, T. (2017). Problems, theories, and governing the crowd. Strategic Organization, 15(2), 275-288. Salas, E., Martin, L. (2017). Decision-making under stress: economics themes and applications. Routledge. Van Aken, J. E., Berends, H. (2017). Problem solving in organizations. Cambridge University Press.

Wednesday, April 8, 2020

Justice as the Advantage of the Stronger Thrasymachuss Ideas (platos the republic) vs. Charles Darwins Principle of Natural Selection a Comparison

It is hard to deny that power often goes hand in hand to strength. Though the ability to take control over the rest of the people and even entire states often depends on such qualities as diplomacy, intellect and strategic thinking, brutal force often actually turns out the pivoting point in the argument between opponents. The given phenomenon spawns a number of ethical questions concerning the situation when the strongest wins only owing to his/her single asset, that is, the ability to use strength to prove the point.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Justice as the Advantage of the Stronger: Thrasymachus’s Ideas (plato’s the republic) vs. Charles Darwin’s Principle of Natural Selection: a Comparison specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Understandably enough, the concept of force as the ultimate argument in a discussion has been a very low, if not the lowest, means of solving a conflict. For examp le, in his Magnum Opus, The Republic, Plato deliberately introduces a character that will represent the thoughtless, unreasonable, mean-spirited idea that the power belongs to the strongest and be opposed to Plato’s own concept of whose hands the power is supposed to be in. However, with the appearance of Darwin’s famous work, The descent of man, the idea of the domination of the strong ones suddenly gained sense; moreover, it can be argued that in a way, Darwin’s work justifies the idea of power being given to the strongest ones. Hence, Darwin’s work becomes a touch controversial. However, despite the seeming similarity between Thrasymachus’s point of view and Darwin’s concept of the strongest as the most possible survivors and leaders, there is a mile of small differences that sets Darwin’s idea of the strongest as the ones with the greatest amount of assets and Thrasymachus’s concept of the strongest is the beholder of bruta l force thousand miles apart. On the one hand, it seems that there are a number of similarities between what Darwin offers as the basic principle of survival and what Thrasymachus claims to be the key principle of existence. Indeed, both philosophers believe that the strongest species have the greatest opportunities not only to stay alive, but also to reach the top of the social hierarchy within a specified group. Darwin insists that the principle â€Å"only the strong survive† works within a group of any living creatures, not only people, and is the basic rule of evolution that allows only the most powerful creatures who, therefore, have the opportunities to produce the healthiest posterity. As Darwin puts it, â€Å"The stature and strength of the men of a tribe are likewise of some importance for its success, and these depend in part on the nature and amount of the food which can be obtained† (Darwin). Therefore, Darwin stresses that a man’s strength, as well as his behavior and manner of conduct affect his social status and shape people’s attitude towards him.Advertising Looking for essay on literature languages? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Thrasymachus, in his turn, argues that strength alone can be the source of everlasting power over the rest of the people: â€Å"My answer is that might is right, justice is the interest of the stronger† (Plato). Therefore, it is clear that Thrasymachus claims justice to be the privilege of the strongest. It is noteworthy, however, that both Darwin and Thrasymachus use the notion of strength in their argument. However, the use of the same word is as far as the similarities between the two arguments go. To start with, it is necessary to explain that by claiming justice to be the prerogative of the strongest, Thrasymachus means that the beholders of the power choose what principles the system of justice must be guided by. Accord ing to Thrasymachus, the idea of the survival principle presupposes that those who managed to live through the changes of the environment will also succeed in playing the role of a community leader and establishing the system of justice: â€Å"An evil soul must necessarily be an evil ruler† (Plato). An argument in favor of the difference between Darwin’s and Thrasymachus’s statement is that Darwin does not actually claim that the strongest necessarily possesses the advantage of justice. According to Darwin, the stronger is capable of getting used to the established system of justice rather than of creating his/her own set of rules: â€Å"With savages, the weak in body or mind are soon eliminated; and those that survive commonly exhibit a vigorous state of health† (Darwin). Thrasymachus, in his turn, claims that the strongest also establishes the laws and sets the principles of judgment: â€Å"Justice is a man’s own loss and another’s gainâ €  (Plato). Though both authors might seem to have a point depending on the perspective, it is still necessary to admit that in terms of intrinsic judgment system, Thrasymachus’s idea does not hold any water. While Darwin explains that both the strongest and the weakest exist in the system of principles of the universal justice, Thrasymachus constitutes the concept of universal justice with the situational one, i.e., the principles that is not considered the ultimate manifestation of justice, but the ones that satisfy the demands of the beholders of the power. That said, it is hardly possible to consider Darwin’s and Thrasymachus’s arguments as equal ones; they simply concern different ideas of what justice is, not what power is. The last, but definitely not the least comment to the famous argument concerns the very concept of strength and the qualities that Darwin and Thrasymahcus understand as strength. In Darwin’s opinion, strength incorporates both physical force and intellectual and moral advantage. It is significant that Darwin stated at the very beginning of the chapter that strength in his interpretation involved not only the ability to destroy or threaten the enemy physically, though it was also an important aspect of becoming a leader, but also being intelligent, able to think fast and adapt to the changing environment. Only joined together, these assets could be viewed as strength, while physical force alone did not guarantee the chance to survive, especially in the primitive setting.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Justice as the Advantage of the Stronger: Thrasymachus’s Ideas (plato’s the republic) vs. Charles Darwin’s Principle of Natural Selection: a Comparison specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More That said, it is clear that the key difference between Darwin’s and Thrasymachus’s point of view is that Darwin does n ot join the idea of justice to the principle of natural selection, which is â€Å"the survival of the fittest† (Darwin), not the ones of the highest morals. While stressing that natural selection is reasonable and by all means predictable, Darwin, thus, explains that it is not always fair. In fact, the very fundament of modern justice is completely opposite to the concept of natural selection – in people’s society, the strongest ought to help the weakest, thus displaying the ability to empathize, which is the core difference between social animals, which people are, and non-social ones: â€Å"It is certain that associated animals have a feeling of love for each other, which is not felt by non-social adult animals† (Darwin). To Thrasymachus’s credit, one must admit that his point is quite clear and reasonable as well. Thrasymachus does not argue that the idea of justice being in the hands of the strong ones is how the justice system should be establ ished; however, this is how the justice system works in the real world. Admitting that the given state of affairs is rather unfortunate, Thrasymachus still adopts a more realistic point of view on the system of justice. Therefore, Darwin’s supposition concerning the strongest species as the ones that will most likely survive adapting to the changing environment and Thrasymachus’s idea of the strongest as the one who will prove his/her point with his/her force instead of developing other qualities, in fact, have very little in common. Though both works introduce the concept of the strongest as the most capable of reaching for the top, the authors obviously use the given term with a slight difference in meaning. While Thrasymachus makes it clear that force is the ultimate argument in any discussion, Darwin states that â€Å"the strongest† does not necessarily mean â€Å"the one whose muscle system is the best developed.† On the contrary, Darwin seems to inc orporate a variety of qualities into the image of the strongest representative of the species, meaning â€Å"the most capable of adapting† by saying â€Å"the strongest.† Hence, it can hardly be regarded appropriate to put Thrasymachus’s ideas on the same level with those of Darwin. While both opinions have the right to exist, it would be wrong to claim that Darwin’s concept of the strongest has much to do with the one suggested by Thrasymachus. Works Cited Darwin, Charles. â€Å"Comparison of the Mental Powers of Man and the Lower Animals.† The Descent of Man. Ed. Charles Darwin. 1871. Web.Advertising Looking for essay on literature languages? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Darvin, Charles. On the Development of the Intellectual and Moral Facilities. The Descent of Man. Ed. Charles Darwin. 1871. Web. Plato. The Republic. 380 B. C. Web. This essay on Justice as the Advantage of the Stronger: Thrasymachus’s Ideas (plato’s the republic) vs. Charles Darwin’s Principle of Natural Selection: a Comparison was written and submitted by user Nadia Morris to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Monday, March 9, 2020

Karl Marxs Paradigm of Unbridled Development

Karl Marxs Paradigm of Unbridled Development Free Online Research Papers The Marxist Political Economy and The Paradigm of Unbridled Development A look at how Marxist principles explain the sweep of globalization over the world economy, its implications, and how ultimately it will lead to capitalism producing its own grave diggers from a displaced middle class. Few populate the realm of those who retain their relevance more than a century after their deaths. Though many are read, studied, and emulated rarely do the great thinkers produced from the Enlightenment and into the nineteenth century have ideas applicable to the modern world. Since their writings there have been three complete waves of democratization that have transformed the political landscape of the world, a world that was populated with monarchs and empires when they wrote about, analyzed, and observed it. Of the thinkers who retain a degree of relevance fewer yet have begat revolutions, modes of political analysis, and even techniques of literary critique. Then of course, none of them foretold the mass globalization, advent of free trade, and grandiose expansion of the capitalist free market or of its downfall as did Karl Marx. Karl Marx utilized the dialectical method, a system adapted from Hegel as a ‘Young Hegelian’ and used by Aristotle before Hegel. Hegel was of the belief that society was rife with contradictions, a condition occurring when two social variables are incompatible to be in coexistence for the long term that would lead to harmonious resolutions. These resolutions would provide a great deal of unity and tranquility in Hegel’s view. Karl Marx was of the belief that society was indeed comprised of a grand system of contradictions, but differed in that he felt that these contradictions resulted in conflict which would eventually spur into violent revolution and change, particularly in the capitalist system. Marx introduced a great deal of historical analysis and found that all economic systems since recorded history began have involved class divisions and economic inequalities where wealth is appropriated upward from a lower class to a ruling class. Slaves created wealth that was appropriated to masters, serfs generated wealth to lords, and the lords would use this wealth in conjunction with the advent of private property to become capitalists, or the bourgeoisie, who exploit the labor of wage workers or the proletariat. With these class distinctions come contradictions that eventually weaken the system and lead to its change into another, more compatible system. Marx saw this as a long running evolution that would eventually create a classless society and mode of production which he saw as communism. Integral to his study of capitalism is his perception of the aims of capitalism, which is ostensibly to take capital, invest it into creating a product, and selling that commodity for more than it took to manufacture it taking into consideration the costs of raw materials, facilities, and fuel which are static charges and the variable cost of wages paid to the workers who operate the means of production, which they do not own. That money is then reinvested to create more capital, and the cycle is repeated until losses exhaust the capital and one falls from the high ranks of the bourgeoisie or until one dies. What this creates, according to Marx’s Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844 is alienation for both the proletariat and the bourgeoisie. The proletariat is alienated from the goods it creates which Marx saw as an essential part of labor, the ability to enjoy the products of one’s labor. As Marx states it: â€Å"The product of labor is labor which has been embodied in an object, which has become material: it is the objectification of labor. Labor’s realization is its objectification. In the sphere of political economy this realization of labor appears as loss of realization for the workers; objectification as loss of the objet and bondage to it.† (Marx, 2002, p. 833) Also, the worker is alienated from other human beings as capitalism, in Marx’s view, has created a system of exchange where human relationships are replaced by cash transactions; this idea is elaborated in 1876’s Capital with the concept of the fetishism of commodities where goods take on meanings not inherent to the product itself and human beings begin treating others as objects. And the worker is alienated from the capital that they generate, which has been appropriated upward to the bourgeoisie. This system of upward appropriation of wealth eventually creates two classes after the middle class fades into the proletariat which possesses interests diametrically opposed to that of the bourgeoisie. Marx was a historical materialist, seeing the superstructures of society stemming from material relations and the impact of economic systems upon social institutions. As the bourgeoisie will be in charge of creating policy by the very nature of democratic politics, and thus will have a great degree of control over the education system, education, on the level of state provided education, becomes a source of indoctrination and a means to subordinate the proletariat. The bourgeoisie also manipulates religion and creates social constructs to both subordinate the proletariat and create infighting within the proletariat. In essence, the proletariat is a group living in similar economic conditions, as are the bourgeoisie, therefore they comprise a class in themselves. However, until they gain class consciousness and realize that they have interest in contradiction to those of the bourgeoisie they are not a class for themselves. This is a point of contention that the bourgeoisie take s eriously and have deployed a number of tactics to prevent the proletariat from becoming a class for itself such as the doctrine of predestination in Puritanical sects of Christianity. This doctrine stated that one was destined, upon birth, to go to heaven or hell and that this fate was irrefutable and not subject to change. The job of the worshiper was to work hard for signs of their fate, these signs were interpreted as financial success and thus the protestant ethic that Weber would explore was born. (Chomsky, 2006, pp. 110-156) The bourgeoisie also use race, ethnicity, and difference of religious preference to their advantage. A prime example is today’s struggle over immigration in the United States where mostly blue collar workers adamantly and sometimes violently resist the influx of Mexican immigrants because they are, in their view, taking their jobs. What this creates is a struggle within a class, the proletariat, that prevents them from discovering their mutual position in opposition to the bourgeoisie and to recognize the shared exploitation that they are being subjected to. Racial prejudices that gave rise to the Ku Klux Klan and like groups kept the proletariat fighting against itself. That is why, in Marx’s view stated in the 1848 Communist Manifesto, in order to establish a classless society private property, religion, and the family due to its inherent financial obligations that facilitate ones subjugation by the capitalists must be abolished. Marx saw capitalism as a necessary step to communism, a system that had put into place the infrastructure, machinery, and facilitated the acquisition of knowledge in order to build a flourishing capitalist system. He cited the United States as an optimal breeding ground for a revolution of the proletariat, where the working class would rise as one and overtake the bourgeoisie, seizing their property and thus the means of production due to its advanced state of democracy and its innovative farming techniques, abundance of natural resources, and modern infrastructure. The problem is that the revolution did not occur here. V. Lenin interpreted Marx’s work and applied it to Russia, which was a Czarist Agrarian society at the time. Aside from not being the optimal economic climate in which to stage a proletariat revolution, Lenin interpreted the revolution to be led by elites who would establish a strong central government to subordinate the people and, more or less, force them into a classless society. After Lenin’s death, the Soviet Union was born and the communist party, to which Marx was inextricably tied via his writing of the Communist Manifesto in 1848, lost a great deal of relevance and support and became villiafied, particularly in America. Numerous third world countries would follow suit and, going by Marx’s model, predictably failed. This leads many to state that Marx himself has lost his relevance. What they fail to see is that these so called Marxist revolutions were launched on perversions of Marx’s work, interpretations that ignored large tracts of his works particularly anything written after the Communist Manifesto. Particularly what many fail to recognize is a central contradiction in the capitalist system that will, at some point in time, lead to its implosion if a proletariat revolution fails to dismantle the system beforehand. The contradiction is this. In order for a capitalist to be successful, he must put less money into a product than he gets out of it. Thus, as the product sales for more than raw materials, overhead, and labor put together then the amount paid to laborers in wages falls far short than the total exchange value of goods on the market at a given time. Eventually, once there are no new markets to conquer, the findings of which made capitalism a viable system to begin with starting in the late 15th century with the dawn of mass exploration, and no new labor markets to exploit then the system will reach an end from which there is no return. There will be an inevitable mass surplus of goods, which is unsatisfactory in a capitalist system because in a market where supply exceeds demand, price falls. When price falls, profits disappear and so too do the capitalists. The bourgeoisie knows this and thus much of the economic policies of the last twenty years can be explained through Marxist interpretations. The need to expand both markets for goods and for labor has created the paradigm that is commonly referred to as globalization and has created a vocabulary all its own with terms like free trade zones, outsourcing, and the transnational or multinational corporation. The bourgeoisie used their influence to make all of this legal by creating systems outside of the system that transcend borders like the World Trade Organization that work to propagate the transnational corporation and explore more native peoples living in abject poverty in the wake of failed pseudo-Marxist revolutions in South America, Asia and Mexico. Particularly of importance in America, NAFTA was passed in 1994. NAFTA, or the North American Free Trade Agreement allowed companies from America and Canada to relocate into Mexico along the northern border. Previous to the passage of NAFTA, there were factories called maquiladoras along the border of Mexico, however they were restricted to producing textiles as part of the Bracero program in 1964 which intended to develop the region. After NAFTA, all companies were permitted to move into the region. Today over three thousand factories exist in the maquila region. They produce items ranging from textiles to petrochemicals and automotive parts. Work hours are extraordinarily long. The typical maquiladora work week ranged from sixty-five hours to eighty hours, depending upon the type of factory and the type of work being done. This accomplishes two things, it allows for cheap production of goods as workers are rarely paid overtime, and even if they are it occurs long after the point at which American workers would be paid and it installs a younger workforce with a lower degree of longevity at the factory. The longer a worker is in the factory the more likely he or she is to demand a wage increase or attempt to unionize. (Sciences, 1999) Wages are also remarkably low. The typical maquiladora worker makes about $1.00 per hour, substantially less than the manufacturing sector average within Mexico and far below American wages. Furthermore the cost of living in Mexican border towns is comparable to small towns in the United States. Thus the wages barely, if even, cover expense of living and certainly do not allow for any extra capital that could be used to buy luxury items, invest in the infrastructure of the community or to develop the local economy. The bourgeoisie is actively attempting to install a permanent proletariat. The conditions are similar in over eighty free trade zones throughout the world, and apparently enough new exploitive labor markets were not secured as congress passed CAFTA, the Central American Free Trade Agreement in 2007. (Durazo, 2000) In America the consequences have been two fold. Immediately and most recognizable to Americans is the expanded availability of goods that are, in the short term affordable. However, everyone from Lou Dobbs to Noam Chomsky has pointed out that the middle class is disappearing and that the gap between the rich and the poor is increasing, and has been since Reagan’s deregulation policies of the 1980’s and the launch of the neoconservative movement which holds free market capitalism and the trickle down theory of economics, which suffers from the camera obscura fallacy. As cheaper labor markets appear, corporations, despite of their intentions, are forced to move to areas where labor is cheaper in order to compete and to be as profitable as their competitors. Thus, the capitalists are themselves alienated from their species as, in order for them to survive as capitalists, they must exploit the labor of proletariats to the greatest degree possible. ( (Weller, 2006)) At any rate, this diminishing of the middle class pushes more and more into the ranks of the proletariat. With a new segment of the proletariat having seen the capitalists in action it becomes more and more likely that they will become the grave diggers that Marx predicted that capitalism would ultimately create. (Marx 2002) So, although it seems as though Marx might be irrelevant, if one looks closer they can observe that he was simply ahead of his time and that the economic and resulting political crises that he foresaw have a groundwork in place to come into effect in the relatively near future. Though this analysis has framed the ideas of global trade and free market capitalism in Marxist terms, Marx’s analyses of society can be applied to a myriad of social problems such as crime, poverty in general, or even serial monogamy via the fetishism of commodities. Unfortunately the popular perception of Marx in America has been marred by the stains of the Soviet Union and other pseudo-Marxist movements. The heavy hand of the bourgeoisie that has suppressed, historically, a great number of expressions of Marxist thought, has helped to keep the shutters closed so that the light cannot shine on the problems for all, the proletariat, to see. Chomsky, N. (2006). Failed States: The Abuse of Power and the Assault on Democracy. New York: Metropolitan Books. Durazo, L. (2000, June). Maquiladora Information. Retrieved May 18, 2007, from Projecto fronterizo de Education Abiental. Marx, K. (2002). Classics of Political and Moral Philosophy: Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844, Manifesto of the Communist Party. (S. M. Cahn, Ed.) London, UK: Oxford Press. Sciences, F. f. (Director). (1999). Free Trade Slaves [Motion Picture]. Weller, J. B. (2006). Supersize This: How CEO PAy Took Off While Americas Middle Class Struggled. Center For American Progress . Research Papers on Karl Marx's Paradigm of Unbridled DevelopmentAssess the importance of Nationalism 1815-1850 EuropePETSTEL analysis of IndiaRiordan Manufacturing Production PlanTwilight of the UAWBionic Assembly System: A New Concept of SelfIncorporating Risk and Uncertainty Factor in CapitalCanaanite Influence on the Early Israelite Religion19 Century Society: A Deeply Divided EraQuebec and CanadaThe Effects of Illegal Immigration

Friday, February 21, 2020

English topic paper Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

English topic paper - Essay Example In case the high schools students are not required to wear school uniforms, parents will be required to spend money on buying fancy clothes for their children. Children will also force their parents to buy fashionable and branded clothes for them so that they could impress their class fellows at school. Hence, if the high school students are required to wear school uniforms, they will not feel the need to spend money on trendy clothes. This will lead to an immense saving on the money spent on buying expensive clothes to be worn at school. Students will not feel the urge to appear cool at school. Thereby, they will not expect their parents to spend money on costly clothes. School uniforms will promote a sense of equality amongst the students. In the schools that do not require their students to wear uniforms, students do judge each other on the bases of the clothes they wear. This promotes superficial values amongst students. Students prefer to make friends with those students who dress up like them. They do avoid students wearing affordable or simple clothes. This leads to the formation of groups and cliques at schools and gives way to much bullying and harassment. However, in case the high school students are made to wear uniforms, they will rather try to judge their class fellows on the basis of their talent and qualities. This will encourage and promote equality amongst students. School uniforms are the best way to protect schools from outsiders. In the recent times there have been many incidents of violence and crime at schools. Many a times the schools are not able to identify the outsiders that enter their premises. This makes it possible for the criminal elements to enter high schools and to commit crimes in schools. School uniforms will help the school authorities identify the outsiders entering their premises. This will allow them to take timely action and will make the schools much safer and secure. Thereby, for the high school